Lutheran Fish Creek Ridge Lutheran Church in Rockland, Wisconsin, dedicated in Saint James Episcopal Church in Los Angeles, California, built in the Gothic Revival style in Presbyterian Church in Mendocino, California; organized in , it is among the oldest Protestant churches in continuous use in California; the building was constructed entirely of Redwood in the local "carpenter's Gothic" style and dedicated in Forestville Church of Christ in Forestville, California; the oldest church in this Congregational denomination west of the Rockies, it was founded in The Little Brown Church in the Vale in Nashua, Iowa is the Congregational church that inspired Dr. Luther challenged then-common church actions which he viewed as corrupt, among them the Catholic manner of handling the sacraments, the practice of simony, the rule of celibacy for clerics, and the sale of indulgences -- remissions of punishment for sins which have been forgiven, the sale of which, he believed, reduced forgiveness of sin to the level of a financial transaction. Luther believed that forgiveness was God's alone to grant, and therefore that both the clerics who sold indulgences and the parishioners who bought them thinking that they were thus to be absolved from punishment and granted eternal salvation were in error. Within two weeks, printed copies of the "Ninety-Five Theses" had spread throughout Germany. The translation was printed and went into wide distribution, making the Lutheranism the first protest in history that "went viral" through the use of the then relatively new technology of the printing press. Within months, further language translations and reprintings had followed, and copies of the "Ninety-Five Theses" were available the length and breadth of Europe.
Reformation - Wikipedia
Memorial Church finished and consecrated in Speyer commemorates the Protestation. The Protesting Speyer, part of the Luther Monument in Worms Protestant[ edit ] Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities , who issued a protest or dissent against the edict of the Diet of Speyer , were the first individuals to be called Protestants. The term protestant, though initially purely political in nature, later acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy.
The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatory , particular judgment , and the authority of the pope. He would later in the period — write works on devotion to Virgin Mary , the intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, good works , and monasticism. In contrast, Reformed areas typically secularized monastic property. Reformers and their opponents made heavy use of inexpensive pamphlets as well as vernacular Bibles using the relatively new printing press, so there was swift movement of both ideas and documents. Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli.
Roman emperor; reconquered Mediterranean empire; accelerated Catholic-Monophysite schism Hinduism; Jainism founder of Jainism Source of list of names: In the afterword to his book The , Michael H. Hart listed runners-up, all of which are listed here. The book's afterword also included brief discussions about ten of these runners-up about one page each.